Quakers have been concerned about Europe for more than 300 years. In 1693 William Penn, an early Quaker, published his Essay Towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe. This was the first publication in the English language to suggest the idea if the nation-states of Europe co-operating in a “Parliament or State of Europe”. As Penn saw things, “peace is maintained by justice, which is a fruit of government”. Peace between states, as between individuals, therefore requires a system of justice and adherence to the rule of law. Penn’s prophetic vision was more than 250 years ahead of its time.