QCEA has been working on the subject of the EU’s Response to the Threat of Terrorism since 2005. This set of Briefing Papers represents our evolving progress on this topic.

They attempt to set out systematically what the EU has been doing in response to the threat of terrorism which has been very much in the forefront of policy debate. We look at this response in light of existing Treaties, in terms of the external policies of the EU and in terms of the internal policies of the EU. We also examine the relationships between EU actions and policies in this area and the US, NATO and the UN. Later briefing papers attempt to monitor policy developments.

Whatever we might think of the reality of the threat of terrorism, the extent and magnitude of that threat, the definition of what is commonly referred to as terrorism or indeed the analysis of the causes of this threat, we must be clear that the EU, along with its Member States and many other countries in the world, has focused on this issue more and more, and particularly so since the events of 11 September 2001 and 11 March 2003.

This is a very broad subject. We have therefore attempted to cover it from a broad perspective. The Report and Briefing Papers in this series are briefly described below:

Our full reports on terrorism

1. Effective Counter-terrorism

This report tackles the question of terrorism in the European Union from a Quaker perspective, emphasising the complexity of the phenomenon, and advocating a long-term solution that addresses its root causes.

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Our briefing papers on terrorism

 The 2011 and 2012 briefing papers 

15. The Counter Terrorism Coordinator

Human rights are often lost within counter-terrorism policy work.This briefing paper discusses the role of the Counter-Terrorism Coordinator.

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14(b). Counter Terrorism Policy Initiatives – Main areas of concern

In this briefing paper we outline our main areas of concern in relation to a number of policy initiatives including the Terrorist Finance Tracking Programme, the PNR policy, the Terrorist Lists, the issue of Extraordinary Renditions and policy initiatives in relation to the internet.

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14(a). Law and Policy Framework Developments since 2005

This briefing paper reviews the legal and policy changes that have taken place since 2005 including those arising from the Lisbon Treaty with reference to the Stockholm Programme, the EU strategy for combating radicalisation and recruitment to terrorism, the European network of Experts on Radicalisation, and policy developments in regard to the victims of terrorism.

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 13. Evaluating and Evaluation

This briefing papers looks at the evaluation of the counter terrorism policy of the European Union and the response to this from the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee, the European Data Protection Supervisor, Amnesty International and the EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator.

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The 2007 briefing papers 

12. Council of Europe Responses to the Threat Posed by Terrorism

The Council of Europe has a history in developing measures to tackle the terrorist threats faced by its member states. This began with The European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, signed in 1977, and most recently involved a high-profile report on alleged secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers involving Council of Europe member states. This Briefing Paper outlines and examines the Council of Europe responses to the threat posed by terrorism.

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11. The New EU Strategy, New Action Plan and the Future

This paper outlines this new EU counter-terrorism strategy of December 2005, and the subsequent action plan. It concludes with comments on likely future EU counter-terrorism action.

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10. Revised Action Plan, the Hague Programme and the Future

This paper provides an overview of the following official EU documents: the Hague Programme, a 5 year pan-EU plan put forward by the Directorate General Justice and Home Affairs; the Revised EU Action Plan on Terrorism of June 2005 and; the EU Strategy to Counter Recruitment to Terrorism and Radicalisation.

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The 2005 Briefing Papers

9. The EU and the United Nations

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8. The EU and NATO

This Briefing Paper sets out the relationship between the EU and NATO in this area.

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7. The US-EU Joint Actions

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6. Civil Protection

This Briefing Paper sketches out the EU initiatives taken to provide civil protection and to develop cooperation in this area.

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5. Justice and Home Affairs

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4. The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), the European Defence Agency (EDA) and the EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator

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3. The Action Plan and Declaration

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2. The Context of the Treaties

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1. Historical Development & Context

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The Briefing Papers 1 to 9 in this series were researched and written by Martyna Pospieszalska who worked with QCEA on this issue for 3 months during 2004 and for a brief period in 2005. Martyna was then a student at Vesalius College in Brussels and undertook this research as an internship.  QCEA would like to express its sincere thanks to Martyna for the work she did on this project. Without that input, these Briefing Papers could not have been produced within a relatively short timescale.